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National Suffering Memorial
Terezin is synonymous with the control and attempted destruction of the Bohemian Community. Basically a transit camp that takes on the appearance of a ghetto, it is only a 30 minute drive from central Prague. Organised tours do this place as a half-day but there’s also a public transport option if you want a more leisurely look around (check the bottom of this page for details).
What Was the Terezin Complex?
In German it’s called Theresienstadt. Built by King Joseph II in what becomes called the “Sudetenland” which was an area of the Austro-Hungarian Empire largely populated by ethnic Germans. Named after his mother Queen Maria Theresa it was designed as a river defence complex and army barracks comprising two fortresses. To the east, the Small Fortress and to the west the Main Fortress which was a walled town. Its primary role was to defend against attack from Saxony. In total the complex area was a little under four square kilometres and could accommodate just over 5000 soldiers in peacetime.
When Does Terezin Become a Death Camp?
First let’s agree on what “death camp” means. Terezin was never supposed to be a “final destination”. It was a transit camp for the collection and processing of “undesirable people” including Ethnic groups, handicapped, homosexuals, political opponents and Czech Jews with a view to sending them to places like Treblinka, Lodz and Auschwitz etc. It was a true ghetto. With it’s own governing council and police force the community tried to maintain it’s own order to the point of having everybody ready for transport without knowing the “final solution” awaited them. Figures show that around 33,000 people died here largely due to the appalling conditions given that it had to host ten times the people it had been designed for. It was from 1940 that the Nazis began to convert Terezin to a mass holding area and the first people arrived here in late 1941. By the end of the war more than 150,000 had been through Terezin with more than half of them going on to Auschwitz. At the time of liberation there were 17,247 survivors at Terezin.
Terezin was liberated on May 2nd 1945 when the camp was given over to the Red Cross. The Russian Army formally took control on May 9th 1945. The following day May 10th the Small Fortress becomes a holding area with captured troops for prosecution and ethic Germans. These ethnic Germans were then expelled from the country back into Germany.
In 1947 the site was named as a “National Suffering Memorial” but the camp was still being used as an army barracks until 1966.
Getting There and Back
It’s a popular half-day organised tour but if you do want to get there on your own then a bus leaves from the Holesovice Bus Station every 30 minutes (usually stand 7, pay the driver). It’ll take just under an hour and at the time of writing cost CZK90. You can get off the bus either at the small fortress or a few minutes later at the main square close to the large fortress. Note that after 5pm buses coming back are hourly and last bus back is around 8pm. If you are searching timetables then it’s “Terezin, okres Litomerice”.
For people who want an organised tour Check the Half-Day Tour of Terezin